Mapping the world’s oil and gas pipelines | Infographic News

Over the past 50 years, the annual world conference energy consumption almost tripled, from 62,949 terawatt-hours (TWh) in 1969 to 173,340 TWh in 2019.

For centuries, the burning of coal has been the world’s primary source of energy.

In the 1960s, rapid advances in the supply, transportation, and refining of oil and gas allowed these energy-dense fossil fuels to overtake coal and become the world’s primary source of energy – qu ‘they remain today.

Despite advances in renewable energy, fossil fuels, including coal, oil and gas, still account for over 80% of global primary energy consumption.

(Al Jazeera)

Every day, the world consumes some 100 million barrels of oil and 60 million barrels of natural gas.

To transport this enormous amount of energy, pipelines – usually made of carbon steel – are widely used.

In the following set of infographics, we map the current and planned oil and gas pipelines around the world.

Global pipelines – 30 times the circumference of the Earth

According to World Energy Monitor, there were at least 2,381 oil and gas pipelines in service in some 162 countries as of December 2020. The combined length of these pipelines is over 1.18 million km (730,000 miles) – enough to cover 30 times the around the Earth.

The countries with the longest oil and gas pipeline network are:

  1. United States – Oil: 91,067 km (56,587 miles); Gasoline: 333,366 km (207,145 miles)
  2. Russia – Oil: 38,419 km (23,872 miles); Gasoline: 92,831 km (57,683 miles)
  3. Canada – Oil: 23,361 km (14,516 miles); Gasoline: 84,682 km (52,619 miles)
  4. China – Oil: 27,441 km (17,051 miles); Gasoline: 76,363 km (47,450 miles)
  5. Australia – Oil: 1,636 km (1,017 miles); Gasoline: 23,002 km (14,293 miles)

The map below shows pipeline networks around the world. Pipelines less than 100 km (62 miles) in length or less than 6000 barrels per day are not included.

INTERACTIVE - Mapping oil and gas pipelines around the world(Al Jazeera)

Companies that own the most pipelines in terms of length include:

  1. Transneft, Russia – 42,383 km (26,335 miles) – 15 percent
  2. Enbridge, Canada – 33,750 km (20,971 miles) – 12 percent
  3. PipeChina, China – 15,947 km (9,909 miles) – 5 percent

Companies that own the most pipelines in terms of length include:

  1. Gazprom, Russia – 103,212 km (64,133 miles) – 11.2 percent
  2. TC Energy, Canada – 99,440 km (61,789 miles) – 10.8%
  3. Kinder Morgan, United States – 82,075 km (50,999 miles) – 9 percent
INTERACTIVE - Mapping of oil and oil pipelines around the world - who owns(Al Jazeera)

Pipelines by region

Americas

Just over half (51 percent) of all the world’s longest oil and gas pipelines are in the Americas.

Some of the more notable pipelines include:

The Keystone pipeline

Length: 3,462 km (2,151 miles)

Capacity: 700,000 barrels per day

Start year: 2010

It runs from the province of Alberta in western Canada to refineries in Illinois and Texas in the United States. In 2021, a pipeline extension known as Keystone XL was canceled after its license was revoked by the administration of US President Joe Biden.

Rockies Express pipeline

Length: 2,702 km (1,679 miles)

Capacity: 102 million cubic meters (3.6 billion cubic feet) per day

Start year: 2009

The pipeline system is one of the largest gas pipelines ever built in North America. It stretches from the Rocky Mountains of Colorado east of Ohio, crossing eight US states.

GASBOL gas pipeline

Length: 3,150 km (1,957 miles)

Capacity: 30 million cubic meters (1.06 billion cubic feet) per day

Start year: 1999

Also known as the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline, GASBOL is the longest gas pipeline in South America.

Colonial pipeline

Length: 8,850 km (5,500 miles)

Capacity: 3 million barrels per day

Start year: 1962

It is the largest pipeline network for refined petroleum products in the United States. In May, hackers launched a cyberattack on the company that disrupted fuel supplies and led to shortages on the east coast.

INTERACTIVE - Mapping of oil and gas pipelines in the world - Americas(Al Jazeera)

Europe

About a quarter (27%) of the total length of pipelines in the world is in Europe.

Some key pipelines in Europe are:

Druzhba pipeline

Length: 5,100 km (3,169 miles)

Capacity: 1.4 million barrels per day

Start year: 1962

It is the longest oil pipeline in the world and one of the largest pipeline systems in the world. It transports oil from the eastern part of Russia to points in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Germany.

Yamal-Europe gas pipeline

Length: 1,660 km (1,031 miles)

Capacity: 90 million cubic meters (3.2 billion cubic feet) per day

Start year: 2006

Transports gas from Russia’s Yamal Peninsula to European consumers through Russia, Belarus, Poland, and Germany, among other countries.

Greece-Italy interconnection pipeline

Length: 800 km (497 miles)

Start year: 2010

It is an onshore and offshore gas pipeline that connects Greece to the Puglia region in south-eastern Italy.

INTERACTIVE - Mapping of oil and gas pipelines in the world - Europe(Al Jazeera)

Middle East and Africa

About 6 percent of the total length of the world’s pipelines cross the Middle East and Africa.

Some of the major pipelines include:

Trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline

Length: 2,475 km (1,538 miles)

Capacity: 92 million cubic meters (3.3 billion cubic feet) per day

Start year: 1983

Begins in Algeria, crosses Tunisia and crosses the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and Slovenia.

East-west pipeline

Length: 1,200 km (746 miles)

Capacity: 5 million barrels per day

Start year: 1982

Known as the Petroline and Abqaiq-Yanbu pipeline, the Saudi pipeline connects Abqaiq in the east of the country to the Yanbu oil terminal on the Red Sea coast.

Tazama pipeline

Length: 1,710 km (1,062 miles)

Capacity: 22,000 barrels per day

Start year: 1968

Operates from the port of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in the Indian Ocean, to Ndola, in central Zambia.

INTERACTIVE - Mapping of oil and gas pipelines in the world - Middle East Africa(Al Jazeera)

Asia Pacific

About 16 percent of the total length of the world’s pipelines cross the Asia-Pacific region.

Some of the major pipelines include:

Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean pipeline

Length: 4,857 km (3,018 miles)

Capacity: 1 million barrels per day

Start year: 2009

It is used to export Russian crude oil to Asia-Pacific markets including Japan, China, and South Korea.

West-East gas pipeline

Length: 18,854 km (11,715 miles)

Capacity: 82 million cubic meters (2.9 billion cubic feet) per day

Start year: 2005

Consists of four pipelines that connect Xinjiang in the west of China to Shanghai in the east.

Moomba Pipeline in Sydney

Length: 2,081 km (1,293 miles)

Capacity: 13 million cubic meters (463 million cubic feet) per day

Start year: 1976

Extends from the gas fields of southern Australia to the gas distribution systems of Sydney, Newcastle, Wollongong and Canberra.

INTERACTIVE - Mapping of oil and gas pipelines in the world - Asia-Pacific(Al Jazeera)

Around 200,000 km of planned extensions

There are currently at least 212,049 km (131,761 miles) of pipeline extensions underway and planned, at an estimated cost of $ 1,000 billion.

The 32,800 km (20,381 mile) expansion of its oil and gas pipeline is the highest in the world. PipeChina, formerly known as China Oil and Gas Pipeline Network, will soon become the world’s largest gas pipeline builder, according to Global Energy Monitor.

The map below highlights the location of these planned pipelines.

INTERACTIVE - Mapping of oil and gas pipelines around the world - expansion projects(Al Jazeera)

Some notable pipelines include:

Nord Stream 2 pipeline

This 1,230 km (764 mile) pipeline is expected to link Ust-Luga in Russia to Greifswald, Germany, and transport 151 million cubic meters (5.3 billion cubic feet) of natural gas per day. The pipeline will cost $ 11.6 billion and is scheduled to start operations in 2022.

Capline pipeline

Running from Pakota, Illinois to St James, Louisiana in the United States and scheduled to open in 2022, this pipeline will have a capacity of 300,000 barrels per day and a total length of 1,017 km (632 miles).

Niger-Benin pipeline

Stretches from the Agadem oil field in Niger to the port of Sémé Terminal in Benin. Its capacity is 90,000 barrels per day and its total length is 1,980 km (1,230 miles). The pipeline will cost $ 7 billion and is expected to start operations in 2024.

Xinjiang coal-gas pipeline

Works from Xinjiang Autonomous Territory in Shaoguan, Guangdong, China. Its capacity is 82 million cubic meters (2.9 billion cubic feet) per day and its total length is 8,372 km (5,202 miles). The pipeline was due to begin operations in 2021.

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